If you haven't gotten a chance to try out git for your version control system, now's the perfect time. PHPMaster has an introduction to using git for a simple PHP project. It introduces you to some of the basics and gets you up to speed quickly.
Some of the more commonly used version control systems that you have likely heard about are CVS and Subversion. This tutorial will take a "forget everything you know about CVS or Subversion" approach. As someone who has used all three of these systems in the professional realm, I can testify that some knowledge of CVS or Subversion can be useful when approaching Git, but it is not necessary. The best way to learn Git is to start using Git for what Git is.
They break it up into a few different sections - why use git, how to create a new repository, adding/staging files for commit, viewing the project history and viewing diffs for different versions. This is the first part in a series, so keep tuned for future parts touching on branching, merging and working with remote repositories.