Looking for more information on how to do PHP the right way? Check out PHP: The Right Way

TopTal.com:
Introduction to Objects and References in PHP Memory
Oct 19, 2017 @ 14:50:07

In this new tutorial on the TopTal.com site author Agustin Villalba takes an in-depth look at how objects and references are handled in memory by the PHP language.

In this article, I will talk about how object and variable references are controlled in memory, since this is an issue that can generate discussion and differing opinions. One question to ponder is: “By default, are objects passed by reference or by copy in PHP?” I’m going to talk first about what references are not in PHP; secondly, I’ll discuss what they are, and finally, I will examine how the garbage collector works in PHP.

He starts with a quick comparison between objects and references (since they're slightly different). He then covers what things are and aren't references in PHP and some examples showing what they are in either case. Code examples and visuals are included showing how things relate. The post wraps up with a look at how garbage collection works with objects/references and a few closing thoughts about how the collector chooses which to clean up.

tagged: object reference memory tutorial introduction language garbagecollector

Link: https://www.toptal.com/php/objects-references-php-memory

Hayden James:
PHP-FPM tuning: Using ‘pm static’ for max performance
Oct 13, 2017 @ 11:28:13

Hayden James has a post on his site sharing a method he's found for getting better performance out of PHP-FPM with the help of a configuration change. In this tutorial he shows how to use the pm static setting to squeeze the best performance out of your web server.

Lets take a very quick look at how best to setup PHP-FPM for high throughput, low latency and a more stable use of CPU and memory. By default, most setups have PHP-FPM’s PM (process manager) string set to dynamic and there’s also the common advice to use ondemand if you suffer from available memory issues.

He starts by defining the three "pm" settings and what they do: dynamic, ondemand and static. He then talks some about how the PHP-FPM process manager is similar to CPUFreq Governor and the settings it allows. Finally he gets into talking about the "pm static" handling, how it relates to available memory and when it makes more sense to use "dynamic" over "static".

tagged: phpfpm tuning performance static dynamic ondemand tutorial memory

Link: https://haydenjames.io/php-fpm-tuning-using-pm-static-max-performance/

Hackermoon.com:
Debugging a PHP application with strace
Mar 28, 2017 @ 11:24:43

On the Hackernoon.com site there's a recent post from Paolo Agostinetto showing you how to debug your PHP application with a different tool that most might use: strace.

Every once in a while it happens that you have a tricky bug, and when it does you risk to lose hours or even days fixing it.

[...] Yet, sometimes there is that one bug that makes you lose your shit after a whole afternoon spent looking for the root cause. In my experience, bugs that I introduce are generally very quick and easy to spot and fix. But the real challenge is finding bugs in other people’s code like third party libraries, PHP extensions or even PHP itself.

He then talks about a time when his situation was a bit different - he was getting 500 errors from his code that weren't being caught correctly by error handling. He found that Apache was out-of-memory-ing but debugging the exact cause (a suspect Doctrine query) would take more time. Instead he turned to strace and, with a bit of hunting in the resulting output, he tracked the issue down to XDebug being enabled (and a setting that was generating a memory leak).

tagged: debug application strace memory error xdebug process

Link: https://hackernoon.com/debugging-a-php-application-with-strace-4d0ae59f880b

Scotch.io:
Understanding PHP Generators
Oct 28, 2016 @ 11:20:44

The Scotch.io blog has posted a tutorial that wants to introduce you to and help you understand a feature recently added to the PHP language: generators. In this new article author Samuel Oloruntoba walks you through some of the basics and offers advice on when to use this helpful feature.

When it comes to driving, speed is not everything. But on the web, speed makes all the difference. The faster your application, the better the user experience. Well, this article is on PHP Generators, so why are we talking about speed? As you are soon about to find out, generators make a huge difference on speed and memory management.

He starts off by explaining what generators are and gives a simple code example showing how they can replace a standard loop (without some of the memory overhead). He uses a for and foreach loop to show a memory overflow caused by it trying to reach the highest integer allowed in the config. To help solve this, he makes use of generators, a much more memory efficient method that only returns the latest value requested and doesn't keep the remainder in memory. He then answers the question of why you might need to even use generators, how to return keys and send values into the generator. He also offers a word of advice on using them - mostly to not overuse them as it's still possible to have issues (like the memory one above).

tagged: generator example introduction tutorial memory yield

Link: https://scotch.io/tutorials/understanding-php-generators

Christian Weiske:
PHP: Allowed memory size exhausted
Jul 12, 2016 @ 12:17:20

Christian Weiske has a post to his site with a reminder about a common misconception that can happen because of the wording in a standard PHP message about memory exhaustion.

The indieweb.org wiki has a page about Wordpress with a Criticism section. ?

One of those "issues" listed is Fatal Error memory exhausted [...but] I removed that section because it's nonsense to list a server configuration issue as Criticism.

While the admins reverted the change to put the message back, Christian clarified what meaning of the error message to help clarify the situation. In the case if the example message, the "32 bytes" it mentions is not the amount of total memory it's trying to allocate, it's the amount it last tried and failed at. Christian also points out the role that PHP's own memory_limit setting has on when this message might pop up.

tagged: allowed memory size exhausted error message clarification

Link: http://cweiske.de/tagebuch/php-memory-exhausted.htm

Laravel News Podcast:
Episode #13 - Chrome Extension for Tests, Jigsaw, Fixing MySQL Memory & More
Apr 08, 2016 @ 10:52:03

The Laravel News Podcast has released their latest episode, Episode #13 hosted by PHP and Laravel community member Eric L. Barnes.

In this episode, we talk about Laravel Exception Reporter, Chrome Bandwidth limiter, Chrome extension to generate Laravel tests, Jigsaw, Helpspot Vault, Fixing MySql Memory, Sparkwatch, and Taxes.

You can listen to this latest episode either using the in-page audio player or by subscribing either through iTunes or their RSS feed.

tagged: laravelnews podcast ep13 chrome tests jigsaw vault mysql memory ericbarnes

Link: https://laravel-news.com/2016/04/laravel-news-podcast-13/

Zeev Suraski:
PHP 7 Is Gaining Momentum
Apr 04, 2016 @ 11:56:17

In his new post to his site Zeev Suraski talks about the momentum growing behind PHP 7 and some of the recent articles about companies making the move and the overall impression of the new version.

We’re now a few months since PHP 7 came out, and if you’ve been following what’s going on in the PHP world, things are looking pretty exciting! [...] First, InfoWorld gave PHP 7 the 2016 Technology of the Year Award, which is quite remarkable. Remarkable is also how InfoWorld chose to describe the performance gains that are promised by PHP 7 – and I absolutely agree.

[...] As more and more people are trying PHP 7 out, we’re seeing more and more evidence that the promise of 2x performance is being realized, big time. Most recently, Badoo published an article detailing their experience migrating for PHP 5.6 to 7.0

He gets into a bit more detail about the numbers that Badoo published and gives a quick "thank you" to Dmitry Stogov for helping to spearhead the effort to get PHP 7 out the door from Zend. Finally, he points out that there's a Zend Server version that already runs on PHP 7 if you'd like to try it out.

tagged: php7 momentum infoworld award badoo performance memory zendserver

Link: http://zsuraski.blogspot.com/2016/03/php-7-is-gaining-momentum.html

Symfony Finland:
Symfony Benchmarks: PHP 5.6, HHVM 3.11 and PHP 7.0.1
Dec 29, 2015 @ 10:53:46

The Symfony Finland has shared some benchmarks of the latest versions of the Symfony framework (simple applications) on three current environments to see the differences: PHP 5.6, HHVM 3.11 and PHP 7.0.1.

Since the first functional versions of PHP 7.0.0 were made available, there have been a number of benchmarks comparing PHP 5.6, HHVM and PHP 7. [...] The recently released eZ Platform is a CMS built on the Symfony framework. It's a good representation of a modern PHP application with complex functionalities and no legacy code from the 2000's. Thus making a good candidate benchmarks for testing an application built with the Symfony Framework (version 2.7.8).

So let's see how an application built with the Symfony2 framework fares on PHP 5.6, HHVM 3.11 and PHP 7.0.1.

He starts by describing the test setup including the default installation of the eZ platform and how it was configured/set up. He then shares the results, showing memory usage and response times for each of the three different platforms. There's even results from different parts of the application: the front page and the "Top Stories" and "Projects" pages. The results also include the findings for the number of requests per second both with and without the Symfony Proxy included in the platform.

tagged: symfony benchmarks php56 hhvm php7 requestspersecond memory consumption graph

Link: https://www.symfony.fi/entry/symfony-benchmarks-php-56-hhvm-and-php-7

Julien Pauli:
Huge Page usage in PHP 7
Oct 30, 2015 @ 12:16:48

In this post to his site Julien Pauli looks at the concept of "huge pages" and how it relates to some of the behind the scenes work done in PHP 7 to improve memory usage.

Memory paging is a way Operating Systems manage userland process memory. Each process memory access is virtual, and the OS together with the hardware MMU must translate that address into a physical address used to access the data in main memory (RAM).

Paging memory is dividing memory in chunks of fixed size, called pages. [...] Why use huge pages? The concept is easy. If we make the OS Kernel use bigger page sizes, that means that more data can be accessed into one single page. That also means that we'll suffer from less TLB miss, once the page translation is stored into the TLB, because one translation will now be valid for more data.

He briefly covers how some updated memory handling and opcode restructuring helps PHP 7 perform even better, especially when it comes to the OPCache handling. He talks about the changes made in the extension specifically to support the "huge pages" idea, complete with code examples (in C) of how this was accomplished.

tagged: huge page php7 memory improvement performance opcache

Link: http://jpauli.github.io/2015/10/28/huge-page.html

SitePoint PHP Blog:
Memory Performance Boosts with Generators and Nikic/Iter
Oct 20, 2015 @ 09:31:24

On the SitePoint PHP blog there's a tutorial posted showing you how to get some performance gains in your PHP applications using the "Iter" library from Nikita Popov.

First came arrays. Then we gained the ability to define our own array-like things (called iterators). But since PHP 5.5, we can rapidly create iterator-like structures called generators. These appear as functions, but we can use them as iterators. They give us a simple syntax for what are essentially interruptible, repeatable functions. They’re wonderful!

And we’re going to look at a few areas in which we can use them. We’re also going to discover a few problems to be aware of when using them. Finally, we’ll study a brilliant library, created by the talented Nikita Popov.

They start with a common problem: loading information line-by-line from a CSV file. They do some filtering and merging of the values but point our a major flaw - large files. These would drag down performance quite a bit and generators might just make for a good solution. He shows a simple "read CSV" generator to get the lines in the file while also reducing the memory needed. Unfortunately the array_map/array_filter methods he was using for sorting don't work with generators. The nikic/iter helps fix this. Code examples are included showing it in use performing the same operations as before. He ends the post with a few other "fun things" including array flattening, slicing and rewinding generators.

tagged: memory performance boost generator nikic iter library tutorial

Link: http://www.sitepoint.com/memory-performance-boosts-with-generators-and-nikiciter/