Looking for more information on how to do PHP the right way? Check out PHP: The Right Way

Nicolas Grekas:
Making Symfony router lightning fast - 2/2
Feb 22, 2018 @ 12:54:30

Nicolas Grekas has posted the second part of his look at the work that was done to increase the performance on the router in version 4 of the Symfony framework. In part one he covered some of the basic changes made to the router for faster matching. In this latest article he covers some of the "tweaks" made on top of this work to help improve things even more.

In Making Symfony’s Router 77.7x faster - 1/2, we learned how to build a faster URL matcher, using hash-map lookups for static routes, and combined regular expressions for routes with placeholders, while preserving all the advanced features of the Symfony router. However, more work was needed for some real world apps, as at least one of them experienced a slow down. Let’s see how fixing this provided us with (one of) the fastest PHP routers out there.

He then starts working through some of the newer changes to help "reclaim" some of the performance loss in certain situations. He talks about same-prefix route ordering, subpatterns and placeholders to change how the combined regular expressions perform the matching on the incoming URL. The result is an even more performant routing system that's 77 times faster than what they started with.

tagged: symfony routing performance regularexpression regex improvement series part2

Link: https://medium.com/@nicolas.grekas/making-symfony-router-lightning-fast-2-2-19281dcd245b

Symfony Blog:
New in Symfony 4.1: Fastest PHP Router
Feb 16, 2018 @ 10:48:33

On the Symfony blog they have a post covering the result of some changes to how the framework handles incoming requests in Symfony 4: a performance and speed increase in the router making it even better than before.

Symfony 4 is the fastest PHP framework according to independent benchmarks, but we are continuously working on making it faster. In Symfony 4.1, we improved the Routing component to make it much faster when matching incoming URLs.

The post starts with a look at the two functional pieces of route handling: the generation of a URL to match and the matching the framework performs. Symfony 4 has sped things up by creating a "matcher" class during the compilation phase using some of these suggestions. The biggest change was to modify the regular expression URL matching to combine all patterns into one, reducing the number of calls to preg_match and locate the correlating route. The new routing requires no changes in your current Symfony 4 application, it just makes all of the updates it needs behind the scenes during compilation.

tagged: symfony symfony4 router speed performance regularexpression

Link: http://symfony.com/blog/new-in-symfony-4-1-fastest-php-router

php[architect]:
PHP Sessions in Depth
Jan 23, 2018 @ 11:16:33

php[architect] magazine has republished an article from their January 2018 issue by Jeremy Dorn that covers PHP sessions in-depth.

HP Sessions are often taken for granted. A session is a magic array which persists across page loads and holds user-specific data. It’s a fantastic and integral part of most web applications. But when misused, sessions can cause substantial security holes, performance and scalability problems, and data corruption. A deep understanding of sessions is vital to production web development in PHP.

The article covers various topics around PHP sessions and their use including security, performance and scalability. It also covers a few additional topics like serialization of data, session locking and intelligent auto-merging of sessions on the backend. Check out the full article for descriptions of each and some code examples to help show them in action.

tagged: sessions detail security performance scalability additional tutorial

Link: https://www.phparch.com/2018/01/php-sessions-in-depth/

Colin O'Dell:
Optimizing colinodell/json5 with Blackfire
Jan 15, 2018 @ 09:50:37

In a post to his site Colin O'Dell shows how he used the Blackfire.io service to optimize the colinodell/json5 package he created to parse JSON5 in PHP. Blackfire.io is a performance profiling service (from the folks behind Symfony) that shows where the pain points are in your code. They also have a "developer" plan that you can use to try out the service.

Back in November, I released colinodell/json5 - a JSON5 parser for PHP. It's essentially a drop-in replacement for PHP's json_decode() function, but it allows things like comments, trailing commas, and more.

Fast forward to this weekend when I received [a] bug report from a user named Antonio [about slowness in parsing large JSON documents]. Yikes! I always knew that a PHP-based implementation would be slower than PHP's native C implementation, but execution time measured in minutes was completely unacceptable!

So I fired up Blackfire (which I've previously used to optimize league/commonmark) and got to work.

He starts off by getting a baseline to work from, executing the parsing on a custom document he created (not quite as large as in the bug report but still large). After locating a few issues he then started in on the optimizations. The first was an issue with the use of mb_substr, the second was around the remainder of the document to parse and the last an optimization for a regular expression. The post ends with a few other micro-optimizations he also made to the package and a check to use json_decode for faster parsing and only kick in the JSON5 parsing when needed.

tagged: optimize json json5 package blackfireio performance

Link: https://www.colinodell.com/blog/201801/optimizing-colinodelljson5-blackfire

Fabien Potencier:
Symfony 4: Performance out of the Box
Dec 12, 2017 @ 13:48:07

In a quick post to his site Fabien Potencier (of Sensio Labs and the Symfony framework) has a post sharing some information around the performance of Symfony 4 and what kind of speed you can expect in your applications based on it.

Performance is an interesting and sensitive topic. Suffice to say that most projects should not care too much; modern PHP frameworks are fast enough for most use cases and projects. And PHP 7 performance improvements help a lot as well. But people like to compare frameworks, and I guess performance is one way to do so.

What about Symfony 4? During its development cycle, we did some nice performance optimizations: mainly to improve the router and container speed. But several non-related changes in Symfony 4 also help with performance... Your mileage may vary depending on your specific project of course.

He talks about some of the testing and evaluation that's already been done on "Hello world" script performance but points out that this isn't a very real world situation. He shares these metrics, however, to at least give a baseline to compare it against previous Symfony versions. The post also links to another resource that shares these and other benchmarks related to various PHP projects.

tagged: symfony4 performance symfony framework version benchmark

Link: http://fabien.potencier.org/symfony4-performance.html

Delicious Brains:
SQL Query Optimization for Faster Sites
Nov 07, 2017 @ 09:53:47

On the Delicious Brains site they've posted a tutorial that provides some helpful tips and tricks for optimizing your SQL queries on your WordPress sites with the help of some basic techniques and software to analyze your current use.

With dynamic database-driven websites like WordPress, you might still have one problem on your hands: database queries slowing down your site.

In this post, I’ll take you through how to identify the queries causing bottlenecks, how to understand the problems with them, along with quick fixes and other approaches to speed things up. I’ll be using an actual query we recently tackled that was slowing things down on the customer portal of deliciousbrains.com.

They then walk through some of the methods for locating the queries that could be causing issues including the use of the QueryMonitor plugin and the MySQL slow query log. They provide some tips for understanding what makes the query slow and how to use the MySQL Workbench tool to determine the structure of the database and look for optimizations. Finally they get into some of the things they did to solve their own issue including adding caching, better understanding the need of the query and "thinking outside the box" with indexes and normalization.

tagged: sql query optimization performance mysqlworkbench slowquerylog mysql wordpress

Link: https://deliciousbrains.com/sql-query-optimization/

Trivago Tech Blog:
Continuous Performance Monitoring for PHP - The tale of Blackfire at trivago
Oct 30, 2017 @ 11:48:38

On the Trivago Tech blog they've shared some of their experience in continuous performance improvements in PHP applications and how the Blackfire.io service helped them get their best performance.

Our mission is to provide the user with the ideal hotel at the lowest rate. Our backend consists of several services written in different languages. To succeed at this goal we do complex tasks in our main application developed in PHP. While doing this we need to keep the website as fast as possible.

We started to look for some tool that could help us identify performance issues in our code base. We evaluated Blackfire and decided that it was a good fit for our use case.

The article starts by answering the question of "why Blackfire?" and continues on, showing how they integrated it with their workflow. They use the SaltStack tooling to set up servers and configure them so it was just a matter of integrating the Blackfire agent and probe extension via that. They include an overall diagram of how it fits into the architecture and how they worked around the lack of Bitbucket server support. The post finishes with some examples of performance metrics from before and after the optimizations from their results stored in InfluxDB.

tagged: trivago continuous performance monitoring blackfire blackfireio metrics results architecture

Link: http://tech.trivago.com/2017/10/27/continuous-performance-monitoring-for-php---the-tale-of-blackfire-at-trivago/

Hayden James:
PHP-FPM tuning: Using ‘pm static’ for max performance
Oct 13, 2017 @ 11:28:13

Hayden James has a post on his site sharing a method he's found for getting better performance out of PHP-FPM with the help of a configuration change. In this tutorial he shows how to use the pm static setting to squeeze the best performance out of your web server.

Lets take a very quick look at how best to setup PHP-FPM for high throughput, low latency and a more stable use of CPU and memory. By default, most setups have PHP-FPM’s PM (process manager) string set to dynamic and there’s also the common advice to use ondemand if you suffer from available memory issues.

He starts by defining the three "pm" settings and what they do: dynamic, ondemand and static. He then talks some about how the PHP-FPM process manager is similar to CPUFreq Governor and the settings it allows. Finally he gets into talking about the "pm static" handling, how it relates to available memory and when it makes more sense to use "dynamic" over "static".

tagged: phpfpm tuning performance static dynamic ondemand tutorial memory

Link: https://haydenjames.io/php-fpm-tuning-using-pm-static-max-performance/

Kevin Schroeder:
Magento 2 Performance on Docker (a preliminary test)
Aug 14, 2017 @ 09:58:17

Kevin Schroeder has a post to his site sharing some of the results from his initial testing with Magento in a Docker-built environment.

I can’t speak to the cost of Docker experts (I’m not one, but my experience is that once you get through the annoyance of the Dockerfile it doesn’t require much more advanced knowledge than a regular sysadmin), but I found the response interesting because my experience with Docker in production has been so good that I’ve Dockerized practically everything, including this blog. But this guy knows his stuff, and I give a lot of weight to his perspective. But my experience has been different.

Except in one place. Magento 2 on Docker on Mac is a horrible experience and it is specifically because of file system performance. But on Linux I’ve had good experiences. However, those experiences were with Magento 1 and not Magento 2. Magento 2 relies on the file system more than Magento 1 so it is quite plausible that Magento 2 is slow as molasses on Docker.

He decided that he'd try a different platform and see if the results were similar to those on an OSX system. He includes a list of four caveats and the setup including the fact that it is a "smoke test" (prelimary results) and that the rest was being done on a bit older machine. He shares the testing setup and what he used to test and compares the results to it running on "bare metal" (a normal custom setup server). His findings show that the "bare metal" instance ran only slightly better than the Dockerized version. He includes graphs for the requests handled, CPU usage and throughput from each of the tests executed.

tagged: magento docker performance testing results

Link: http://www.eschrade.com/page/magento-2-performance-on-docker

Laravel News:
Optimize Eloquent Queries with Eager Loading
Aug 11, 2017 @ 09:23:29

On the Laravel News site they've posted a tutorial sharing some of the basics around the optimizing Eloquent queries with the help of its own "eager loading" feature.

Object Relational mapping (ORM) makes working with databases amazingly simple. While defining database relationships in an object-oriented way makes it easy to query related model data, developers might not pay attention to the underlying database calls.

A standard database optimization for an ORM is eager-loading related data. We will set up some example relationships and then walk through how queries change with and without eager loading. I like to get my hands directly on code and experiment with things, and I hope to illustrate how eager loading works with some examples will further help you understand how to optimize your queries.

They start with a classic example of the "N+1 problem" when working with database records and how, without you knowing, you might be causing it with lazy loading. The article then talks about eager loading vs lazy loading and how they differ in most ORMs. It then covers Eloquent, setting up some migrations for an example blog application and creating the relationships between Author (user) and the Posts. The models are created and seeders are built to populate the tables with Faker data. Finally it gets to the use of eager loading, making use of the "with" functionality to modify the query structure behind the scenes. The post finishes with mentions of two other eager loading types - lazy eager loading and nested eager loading.

tagged: optimize query eager loading laravel eloquent performance nplusone

Link: https://laravel-news.com/eloquent-eager-loading