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Joshua Thjissen:
Incrementing values in PHP
Oct 13, 2015 @ 10:50:01

Joshua Thjissen has a post to his site looking at a relatively common operation in PHP code - incrementing values - but gets a lot more in-depth than just a simple overview.

Take a variable, increment it with 1. That sounds like a simple enough job right? Well.. from a PHP developer point of view that might seem the case, but is it really? There are bound to be some catches to it (otherwise we wouldn’t write a blogpost about it). So, there are a few different ways to increment a value, and they MIGHT seem similar, they work and behave differently under the hood of PHP, which can lead to – let’s say – interesting results.

He starts with the most basic situations, updating known integer values, but shows the curious things that can happen when the same operations are done on strings. He digs down into the bytecode that's generated from these bits of code, showing the order of operations when the code is actually executed. He then gets into more detail on each kind of operator, starting with the unary increment operator then moving on to the add assignment expression and add operator. For each he describes the behind the scenes bytcode actions happening and where in the PHP source code its being handled (and how).

tagged: increment value integer string bytecode indepth source

Link: https://www.adayinthelifeof.nl/2015/10/13/incrementing-values-in-php/

Bernhard Schussek:
Value Objects in Symfony Forms
Sep 10, 2015 @ 11:35:20

Bernhard Schussek has posted a tutorial on his Webmozart.io site talking about the use of value objects in Symfony forms. By nature value objects don't allow the use of "setters" to assign/change values but he shows how to use a custom data mapper to work around the problem.

Many times, Symfony developers wonder how to make a form work with value objects. For example, think of a Money object with two fields $amount and $currency. [...] Can you write a form type for this class without adding the methods setAmount() and setCurrency()? In this post, I will show you how.

He starts with a bit of an overview on what value objects are and how the concept of immutability comes into play. He shows examples of potential issues if setters are allowed to change data and what should be done when a value change is actually needed. He then gets into the heart of the matter, integrating the forms handling with simple value objects. He goes through building a simple form and the use of the empty_data option to create a new value object with the form values. This works fine but breaks down if you need to update an object. Instead he creates a custom data mapper that sets up two methods, mapDataToForms and mapFormsToData, that allow for both interactions to work correctly.

tagged: value object symfony form tutorial custom data mapper emptydata

Link: https://webmozart.io/blog/2015/09/09/value-objects-in-symfony-forms/

Rob Allen:
ZendInput fallback value
Aug 11, 2015 @ 12:49:26

Rob Allen has posted another article about the ZendInput component of the Zend Framework (he talks about empty values here) this time covering the use of fallback values when the input doesn't contain the needed data.

Recently an issue was reported against ZendInputFilter where the reporter has discovered a regression where the fallback value wasn't being populated correctly. ?Matthew investigated, fixed it and asked me to review it. I was fascinated as I didn't realise (or had completely forgotten!) that ZendInput and ZendInputFilter supported fallback values so I looked into it and it turns out that it's simple and works exactly as its name implies.

He includes a simple example of a fallback for a name value set using the setFallback method on the Input object. He does point out one "wrinkle" in the functionality, however, dependent on the values set for required, allow_empty and continue_if_empty. Certain combinations could make the value either be returned differently than expected or not at all. He includes a small test script that shows the various combinations and what their expected output should look like.

tagged: zendinput fallback value zendframework2 tutorial

Link: http://akrabat.com/zendinput-fallback-value/

Rob Allen:
ZendInput and empty values
Aug 04, 2015 @ 10:49:15

Rob Allen has a post to his site to help clear up some confusion with how the ZendInput component handles "empty" between the required, allow_empty and continue_if_empty logic.

These settings define what happens when you try to validate an empty value for a given input. For ZendInput, empty means exactly equal to null, an empty string or an empty array.

He starts by outlining each of the three settings including both their default settings and its intent. He gets into a bit more detail on continue_if_empty as it has additional logic that depends on the results of the other two settings. He includes a small test application that cycles through a set of values and evaluates them through a ZendInput instance. The output is also included in the post so you can verify your system is seeing the same evaluation results.

tagged: zendinput empty value evaluation required allowempty continueifempty tutorial

Link: http://akrabat.com/zend-input-empty-values/

Freek Lijten:
Value objects
Jul 16, 2015 @ 10:17:14

Freek Lijten has written up a post looking at value objects, how he feels they're not used enough in modern development and a few practical applications of them in action.

I would like to talk about value objects for a bit. Value objects are very underused, very powerful and general good stuff. They might not change your world but they will change, very subtle, a lot of the code you write. I hope to give the shortest possible introduction to the concept and follow up with a couple of example that make me like value objects so much.

He briefly introduces some of the basics of value objects including one of the main points: their immutability. He gives an example of working with a "10 Euro" object, pointing out that once an operation is performed using it, it becomes a different object not just one with a value changed. He also illustrates with an email address example pointing out that email addresses themselves (not the relation to the user) almost never change. He ends the post with another interesting value object scenario using IDs and making them type hint-able.

tagged: value object

Link: http://www.freeklijten.nl/home/2015/07/16/Value-objects

Nikita Popov:
Internal value representation in PHP 7 - Part 2
Jun 22, 2015 @ 10:45:41

Nikita Popov has posted the second part of a series looking at how PHP 7 represents values internally. In the first part of the series the focus was on the major change from PHP 5: the zval updates and how they're allocated. This new post gets into more of the details on each of the types and how they're handled.

In the first part of this article, high level changes in the internal value representation between PHP 5 and PHP 7 were discussed. As a reminder, the main difference was that zvals are no longer individually allocated and don’t store a reference count themselves. Simple values like integers or floats can be stored directly in a zval, while complex values are represented using a pointer to a separate structure.

[...] In the following the details of the individual complex types will be discussed and compared to the previous implementation in PHP 5. One of the complex types are references, which were already covered in the previous part. Another type that will not be covered here are resources, because I don’t consider them to be interesting.

He goes through a few of the different types including strings and arrays and then gets into detail on how objects have changed from PHP 5 to PHP7. He also talks about "indirect zvals" (the IS_INDIRECT handling) that points to another zval instance rather than embedding it. Finally, he talks about two other constants, IS_CONSTANT and IN_CONSTANT_AST, and how they're used behind the scenes with some example code to illustrate.

tagged: internal value variable representation php7 zval types string array object constant ast

Link: http://nikic.github.io/2015/06/19/Internal-value-representation-in-PHP-7-part-2.html

Optional Value Control-flows in PHP using Traits and Magic-methods
Jun 18, 2015 @ 09:44:02

The MyBuilderTech.com site has a new tutorial posted talking about the use of traits and magic methods for optional value handling.

Recently I have been interested in experimenting with different ways to handle optional values. Their are many examples that exist demonstrating the use of the Maybe/Optional structure within the PHP landscape. I would instead like to focus my attention on only looking into the concept of 'orElse', which I have found to be a prominent control-flow whilst using these types of value. Typically, in an imperative mind-set we are accustom to evaluating a value, and based on its existence - defined as falsely in this regard - follow a different course of action, and by-way result.

He gives an example of where a value is checked for null and something else happens when it is. This is a common practice in PHP development, but he's more interested in other ways of handling. The first of these ways is with traits. His example shows an "OrElse" trait that can be used to perform the same evaluation but does some extra magic based on the method name called (his example is "findByIdOrElse"). If the trait method isn't for you, he also offers another possible solution around the use of composition. In this case he uses the same trait but makes it a part of its own class that's then given the object to work with (his "repository").

The post ends with one more "bonus" method for handling optional values - a simple function ("_or") that evaluates the arguments given and returns the first that's "truthy".

tagged: optional value control flow trait magicmethod function truthy

Link: http://tech.mybuilder.com/optional-value-control-flows-in-php-using-traits-and-magic-methods/

Nikita Popov:
Internal value representation in PHP 7 - Part 1
May 06, 2015 @ 08:12:27

Nikita Popov has a new post, the first part of a series, talking about the internal handling of variables in PHP7 and how it has changed from the current/past methods.

My last article described the improvements to the hashtable implementation that were introduced in PHP 7. This followup will take a look at the new representation of PHP values in general. Due to the amount of material to cover, the article is split in two parts: This part will describe how the zval (Zend value) implementation differs between PHP 5 and PHP 7, and also discuss the implementation of references. The second part will investigate the realization of individual types like strings or objects in more detail.

He starts with an introduction to the "zval" struct type and how it relates to the "zvalue" union. He goes on to talk about reference counting on zvals and some of the reasoning/desire to change how these are handled. Finally, he gets to the zval handling coming in PHP7 and the fundamental change in zval handling - they're no longer "individually heap-allocated and no longer store a refcount themselves". This change has several advantages and including improved refcount handling and less pointers involved in determining the actual value. He includes an example of how this new zval structure is defined in PHP7 compare to the previous version too. The remainder of the post looks at other related issues including memory management, supported types and a major change to how variable references are handled.

tagged: internal value variable representation php7 zval zvalue memory reference

Link: http://nikic.github.io/2015/05/05/Internal-value-representation-in-PHP-7-part-1.html

Mathias Verraes:
Resolving Feature Envy in the Domain
Aug 12, 2014 @ 11:55:24

Mathias Verraes has a new post today about something he calls "feature envy" in the domain, related to this code smell (based on a definition from Martin Fowler).

Benjamin Eberlei did a really nice job of explaining refactoring the Feature Envy code smell on his blog. I wrote a comment because I felt the example could be taken one step further. You should read the original post. Below are Benjamin’s code examples (for reference), followed by a repost of my comment.

The "smell" is defined as "a method that seems more interested in a class other than the one it's in". Mathias includes the code examples from the other post showing a datetime calculation and how it could be abstracted out to another class and method. He talks about the migration and how it relates to the "Whole Value" pattern and integrating some of the logic into a factory, generating a "reporting period" instance. He finishes the post with a brief look at an application of domain-driven design concepts to the problem, suggesting that the reporting be even more abstracted from the datetime data and using the "reporting period" object instead.

tagged: feature envy whole value designpattern class object abstraction domaindriven

Link: http://verraes.net/2014/08/resolving-feature-envy-in-the-domain/

Wojciech Sznapka:
Immutable value objects in PHP
May 16, 2014 @ 09:04:27

Wojciech Sznapka has a quick post to his site today looking at a possible implementation of Value Objects (immutable objects) in PHP applications.

Value objects are one of building blocks in Domain Driven Design. They represents a value and does not have an identity. That said, two value objects are equal if their values are equal. Other important feature is that Value Objects are immutable, i.e. they can not be modified after creation. [...] This post isn't about obvious advantages of representing domain logic with support of Value Object. As well, we wouldn't elaborate here about pros and cons of immutable objects. I'd rather would like to show an attempt to change Value Object.

His change method isn't so much a "change" as a "duplicate with new values" process. In his example he creates a EmailValueObject with "host" and "mailbox" properties. This object has a "changemailbox" method that seems to update the "mailbox" property, but in actuality clones the current object with a new "mailbox" value in the constructor.

tagged: value object immutable clone change property

Link: http://blog.sznapka.pl/immutable-value-objects-in-php/